Today,I am a volunteer,to help the old to across the road safety. It's a very necessary thing. I'm going to do it in the future.
【Task6】: 【讲座内容】:关于人类行为如何影响 native fish。第一，人类为了船运，连接了好多湖和海，引进了新鱼群，或大型的海鱼，有的会变成 native fish的predator，降低得 native fish的数量;第二，改变了湖的温度。人类为了造房伐树，但是本来树是可以遮阳，从而降低湖水温度的，低温的湖水会带来更多的氧气，但是现在氧气减少了，native fish就会窒息而死。 【思路】 【Task1】: Some universities plan to replace paperbacks and magazines with electronic books. Do you agree or disagree? Include reasons and examples to support your response. 【思路】 One of the advantages is that it can save a lot of space. Thousands of books could be stored in a single compact electronic device the size of a palm. Another advantage is that it can save a lot of trees from being cut down to make paper for books. However, there are also some disadvantages too. For example, those electronic devices are run by batteries. so it might a bit inconvenient to recharge them all the time. Another disadvantage is that some of the electronic devices are quite expensive so not everyone could afford to buy one 【Task2】: Some people like to take a break or get a job in the summer, while others think it is better to take classes. Which way of spending the summer time do you prefer and why? 【思路】 I would try to take on a part-time job during my summer vacations, if I can. Sometimes it will only be for one day a week. It’s just always helpful to get the work experience and keep myself on some sort of productive schedule. I’m much less likely to take a class during the summer. I’m often so exhausted from all the homework and tests and papers from the school year that I truly need to get away from it for a while. I need to recharge. That way, I can start the new school year with a good attitude, not feeling like I’m going to crash and burn immediately. So my summers are an easy blend of relaxing and working a simple job. I find that it helps make the rest of the year more productive and fulfilling. 【Task3】: 学校通知学生比较在毕业前完成10个小时的志愿者时间。两个人讨论，女学生认 为不合理，因为如果做为硬性要求的话，很多人不愿意做，因为学校要的是 encourage 而不是require 另一个原因是需要服务的community都很远，学生 没有车，不方便到，所以不practical。 【思路】 The school has announced a new policy, requiring each student to complete at least 10 hours of community service before they can graduate. In the conversation, however, the girl disagrees with this policy. She argues that community service should be voluntary. Students should be encouraged to take part in community service, not required to do so. So this policy is going to cause resentment among students. Furthermore, she says that many community service programs are located far away from the school. Most students do not have a car and public transportation is not convenient either. So this new policy is not practical. 【Task5】: 女的遇到Problem，她想上古代历史课taught by Mr Johnson，但是这位教授的选课时间已经截止了。男的就问有没啥办法，然后女的说这门课会teach again in June，还是那个老师教，为期3个星期，但这麽一来她就要在学校多待 3个星期，这会让她比预计中的要 later to meet her parents。另一种solution就是next semester 还有这门课，但问题是那次就是由一个完全new professor来教了，完全不瞭解他，也不知道教的怎麽样。女的又很想被Mr Johnson教。 【思路】 【Task6】: filmmaker technique：ways to make the film powerful or weak 一,仰视好像小孩看大人一樣 二俯视比如人在沙漠裡，显得渺小。 【思路】 【Task1】: Describe a skill you are good at，for example，painting or a kind of sport ，and explain why it is important to you.Please include specific examples and details in your explanation. 【思路】 Basketball: It is a good way to burn calorie, I’ve lost much weight by playing basketball last year. (是个减重的好方法，去年我打篮球减下不少体重) It’s a game to make friends, basketball, as is know to all, is a game requires a good sense of teamwork and cooperation. During the game, we became friends, and the deeper the friendship is, the better we cooperate. (可以通过这个游戏交朋友，众所周知，打篮球需要有很强的合作精神及团队精神，打篮球的过程中和队友成为朋友，友情越深，配合越默契) Piano: It helps me to relax myself, and I really enjoy playing instruments which makes me forget the (我会很多乐器，能帮助我放松，而且我很喜欢弹奏乐器的过程) I want to share my joyous to everyone and help them to cultivate their taste. (我希望能跟每个人分享我的快乐，并帮助他们一起陶冶情操) 【Task2】: Do you prefer a job which requires you to communication with others, or do you prefer a job where you work alone.The two jobs with equal amount of time and pay. 【思路】 Communication: Doing a job with no one to talk to makes me feel like a robot. When I have some difficulty at work, I can communicate with others and find a solution together. (一个人工作让我觉得像是个机器人。如果我在工作上遇到了困难，可以和大家一起讨论解决办法) If I feel stressed at work, I can talk with others for a while, maybe have a cup of coffee, and I will feel much better. (如果在工作上感到压力，我可以和其他人聊会儿天，也许一起喝杯咖啡，这样能缓解很多。) Alone: I don’t have to explain my ideas and thoughts to others, I can handle my own work. (我能自己做好自己的工作，没必要向别人解释我的想法和理念) Different people have different ideas, so I will waste many time on discussing with other people, actually I am not good at communication. (不同的人有不同的想法，时间花在和大家讨论上很浪费时间，而且我也不擅长交流沟通。) 【Task3】: 一门课的时间安排发生变化，从早上调到晚上，因为考虑到很多同学有part-time jobs。对话中学生对此决定及其不满， 认为学校不了解学生的时间安排，很多学生都是晚上工作而白天有学习的时间，同时晚上的同学们都很累，希望找朋友 们玩耍，或者自己休息…… 【思路】 The announcement informs students of a change in the schedule of their physics course, which will be shifted from morning to the evening. It is believed that this will solve the time conflict that many students currently face because they have a part-time job in the morning. In the conversation, however, the boy disagrees with this adjustment. He argues that more students actually work in the evening so they only have time for classes during the day. He further explains that students prefer to have their lessons during the day rather than in the evening because after a day’s work, all they really need is time for relaxation, having fun with their friends, or simply having a good night’s sleep. 【Task5】: 学生是radio club的社长，有一个club fair不过本来要坐在他们摊位的学生临 时生病不能来了。两个办法:他自己顶替，但有个study group 怕会留下不好 印象。第二:找室友，他很热意帮忙，不过因为不是社员，很多问题可能不会回 答。 【思路】 【Task6】: 生物在极端条件下的适应性(adaptation-physiology and behavior) 讲沙漠里的骆驼，怎么适应的高温:一个是有驼峰(hump) 里面有fatty tissue 可 以吸收热量；二是大白天不活动，坐著不站著，省能量，另外一群坐一起，可以互 相遮荫 【思路】 【Task1】: A school is planning to organize it students to visit the workplace. Which place do you recommend the students to visit? 1. A science lab2. A business office 3. A TV studio 【思路】 I would recommend a business office. I think in today’s economic climate, most students would finally work in the office so by visiting a real office environment they can know what their future place of work would look like. They can also ask employees some questions like how to adapt yourself quickly to a new working environment, and how to say no to your boss if you think he is wrong or you think you can’t finish a task in time. On the other hand, a science lab is only for a few of the most intelligent and a TV studio would only be for those who study media and broadcasting. 【Task2】: Some people prefer to keep a busy schedule while others prefer to have a lot of free time. Which do you prefer and why? Use reasons and examples in your response. 【思路】 Personally, I like to have a tight schedule when I was at work because in today’s competitive world, efficiency is what all private enterprises aim for. If I don’t keep myself busy I am not likely to gel a promotion and a pay rise. I could even get fired. But on weekends or during holidays, I tend to have a more relaxed life, because besides work, there a lot of other things that are worthwhile for me, like my family. I need to spend some quality time with them and get my mind relaxed so that I would get back to my busy work relaxed and refreshed. 【Task3】: 阅读:一个学生向学校写信，希望允许学生在学校内停车，原因:(1)不允许学生停车，学生会不 方便；(2)学校建设新的停车场，可以解决停车困难的问题。 听力:女生反对，原因:(1)学校外有bus station，而且公车频率高，又可以去市区很多地方；(2)原有 的空地，学校打算建新的实验室，也没有其他空地可以做停车用。 【思路】 【Task6】: Two advantages of setting operational goals 老板制定operational goals有两个好处，第一，motivate employees，比如一个鞋店，老板跟服务员说每个 月至少要卖50双鞋，服务员就会更努力地推销鞋，销售业绩就更好。第二，提供measurement of performance，再拿鞋店的例子来说，老板设置了每个月卖50双的目标，就可以拿员工有没有达到这个标 准来评价员工的表现，以此决定要不要给奖金bonus，或者加工资raise。 【思路】 【Task1】: Your friend is studying in a business school but wants to change to a university to study music. What is your opinion and why? 【思路】 I would tell my friend to keep studying business, but still take music lessons in his spare time. He already did all the work to get into business school, so he shouldn’t just abandon it partway through. That would be such a waste of time and money! Also, he’s never going to regret having a business degree. But later on, he might regret it very much if he doesn’t follow through on getting the degree. Even if he doesn’t go into business, any higher education is helpful as you look for jobs and start your career. In his spare time, too, he can absolutely continue to practice his musical instrument! Maybe he could join a band after graduation and try to be a professional musician. Maybe it will work, maybe it won’t. But he’ll still have his business degree to fall back on, so he really can’t lose either way. 【Task2】: Some people prefer to work in the office while others prefer to work from home. Which do you prefer and why? 【思路】 Given the choice, I would prefer to work from home. By working from home I don’t have to spend 2 or 3 hours every day commuting, which means I don’t need to get up very early, rush through my breakfast, and squeeze myself into an overcrowded bus or subway train. It feels like I’ll have 2 or 3 hours extra time every day, all to myself, which I could spend as freely as I wish, such as jogging or exercising, reading books, or walking by dog. Some people may say that working from home means cutting yourself from the rest of your colleagues, but I think that with today’s telecommunication and internet technology, you can still stay connected, and quite effectively, with your colleagues or your boss by writing emails, making calls, and sending or receiving fax. 【Task3】: Reading: Coffee shop on campus plan to have live music performedby students on Friday night started next month; the store managerbelieved that student will largely participate in both performance andattendance for the concert.Listening: The female student would like to participate playing guitar andsinging. This kind of live music in this area cost a lot; compared to thatthe coffee shop provides affordable live music experience. 【思路】 【Task6】: 动物欺骗捕食者 predator 以保护自己 defense 的两种方法 behavior:举了一个动物 (蛇) 说是这个动物用 2 种方法:、1)fool predator。说是做出它们要反击的动作 (bite) 其实它们不是真的要 biteand move suddenly to scare the predator predator 就给吓跑了。2)misleading:装死 对吃活物捕食者百试不爽。翻白眼 张嘴 巴 让捕食者以为它们死了。捕食者就走了 等捕食者走了 蛇再活过来。 【思路】 The lecture is mainly about two animal defense behaviors, fooling predators and misleading, to avoid being eaten by predators. Two examples of a snake are given to help further explain these defense strategies. First, when facing threats, snakes often pretend to look more dangerous than they actually are. They become bigger in the part of its head and move fast, trying to bite predators. In fact, they don't really want to bite since their mouth is closed when they move. But snakes try to fool the predators and scare them away. If the first strategy doesn't work due to the persistence of the predator, then another strategy called misleading is applied. The snake will pretend to be dead and hope to be ignored by predator. The snake lies down to the ground, with belly upwards and mouth open, to mislead predators into believing the snake is dead. Since most predators are not interested in dead meat, they would run away for another meal. After few minutes, the snake wakes up and survives for another day. 【Task1】: Describe a special experience that has changed you in a positive way. Explain how it changed you. 【思路】 I've never been a fan of thunderstorms. I have this irrational fear that lightning is going to hit my house or electrocute something I'm touching...I just get scared and wait anxiously for the storm to pass! But once when I was a teenager I was babysitting my young cousin and, lo and behold, a storm started up outside. It was bad, with trees bending in the wind and the rain pelting the windows nonstop. Thunder was rumbling really loudly and my cousin, Theo, told me that he was scared. For a second I didn't really know what to say. But then I decided I had to be the adult and assuage his fears rather than linger on my own. I built a little makeshift tent in the living room with a blanket and a few chairs and had Theo climb in there with me. We sang songs to distract ourselves from the storm and soon enough the was perfectly fine. I felt really proud that day, like I was on the road to maturity. 【Task2】: Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? 【思路】 【Task3】: 人文学科部：诗歌写作课因为报名人太少而被取消。 Humanity department: poem writing is cancelled,because the enrollment is too little. 两个学生的对话： 男学生不同意，因为1. 小班级对他来说更好因为他可以获得更多反馈，individualized attention；2.附近的大学开设这门课程但因为太远，坐公车要一小时，如果没有车去那里也很不方便。 【思路】 The man in the conversation disagree this idea, because: Smaller size is better for him, because he can get more feedback in the small-scaled class. Also, the student can go to a nearby university, but the man says that it is too far away from the campus, so it is really inconvenient to go there without a car. 【Task1】: Which of the following do your friends like you about the most? Cheerfulness, kindness, intelligence 【思路】 1.Cheerfulness 1) Never be bored when they stay with me 2) Bring positive energy to everyone around me. 2.Kindness 1)Always help out when friends need me. 2)moving, cover a shift, help with study, be a good listener, cheer friends up 3.Intelligence 1)Always come up with good ideas to solving problems. 2)Provide friends with valuable information. 【Task2】: Do you prefer carefully pick presents for friends，or give them gift cards? 【思路】 presents: choose something special, in need to friends. gift cards: it's cheap and easy to prepare, sometimes finding a particular present is really difficult. 【Task1】: Which one of the following extracurricular activities would you recommend children to take part in: playing sports, playing music, or visiting art galleries? Explain why. 【思路】 I would recommend that children learn to play an instrument. The whole process of learning to read music and play the corresponding notes is wonderful for the minds of young kids. They’re memorizing things, they’re improving their rhythm…They’re just using their brains in a way that is pretty unique and beneficial. And once they learn to play entire songs, their confidence just shines! This is especially true if they play their instrument at a school concert or something similar. When they see their parents and the rest of the audience clapping for them, they are so proud. It’s always good to accumulate talents and skills, and knowing how to play an instrument is one that kids will always appreciate they have. 【Task2】: Do you like to review tests in the morning or at night? 【思路】 in the morning 1. have a clear mind in the morning. 早上有一个清醒的头脑 2. can memorize knowledge more efficiently. 记知识点很有效率 【Task1】: Describe a tool or object that you rely on often in your daily life. Explain why it is important to you. 【思路】 Among the many things that I rely on daily in my life, there is a paper calendar placed on the right side of my desk which is certainly one of the most frequently used and also the most important. It allows me to keep track of dates, constantly reminding me of important days like public holidays,festivals, or anniversaries which are all highlighted on the calendar so I won't forget to send best wishes to my close friends and family members on these days. Moreover, I have the habit of marking my study or work plan on this calendar by circling the days that I should pay special attention to, like deadline for submitting my school assignment. 【Task2】: Some people prefer to finish work as soon as possible. Others prefer to wait until the due time or deadline. Which do you prefer and why? 【思路】 i like to complete my work as quickly as possible rather than wait until the last minute -i usually have the strongest motivation to finish the task once i receive it . -in this way, i can allow myself more leisure time for personal hobbies or social activities. -doing work near the deadline makes me feel guilty. 【Task1】: If a foreigner friend comes to your country, what kind of food would you recommend and why? You would use past personal experience to support your answer. 【思路】 I would offer to take this foreign tourist to the most popular local restaurant in my city and recommend this wonderful Chinese cuisine, which is called kung pao chicken, diced chicken fried with chili and peanuts. Actually this is the most popular Chinese dish; you can find it in every Chinese restaurant, big or small. The 2008 Beijing Olympic Games even made it to the top of the official menu to cater to the myriad tastes of international guest. But I have another reason to recommend kung pao chicken, which has something to do with a cooking contest I won when I was in college. I spent days researching and experimenting with methods to improve ways to make the perfect kung pao chicken and finally I was able to impress the judges. So to recommend kung pao chicken also means opportunity to boast this particular experience in front of the foreign guest and hopefully win his/her praise. 【Task2】: Do you prefer to learn from people and events in the past or people and events that currently exist? Explain with specific reasons and details. 【思路】 I prefer to learn from people and events in the past. I feel like, when events are current, we sometimes can't properly understand them. We're just living them, day-to-day,perhaps without seeing the big picture. We can't see the forest for the trees, as the saying goes. There needs to be that distance of time in order to have proper comprehension. It't only then that the themes and patterns emerge and we can learn what sorts of things work and what sorts of things are harmful,or what is right and what is wrong. I would feel much more confident proclaiming something from twenty years ago as wise or a brilliant idea over something contemporary, where I'm still not even sure what all of its results and ramifications will be. 【Task1】: What do you think is the most important advancement over the past 20 years in your country? Use reasons and specific examples to explain why you think that is important. 【思路】 i think the most significant development in China during the last 20years is the development of high-speed train throughout the country. -firstly, it improved the economy of China. with dramatic growth of domestic travels. local economies are booming with the increased volume of tourists. -it saves time of travelers,and increases the efficiency of business, it also creates the convenience of family gathering. -the net work of high-speed train also connects the country in social and cultural aspects, making it more integrated. 【Task2】: It is said that in order to be successful, a person should study in the university. Do you agree or disagree with this statement? 【思路】 Despite the importance of higher education, many successful people did not go to the university. -A lot of academic knowledge learned from university has become outdated in modern society -university fails to inspire young people`s creativity -Many business opportunities are discovered by people who drop out of university 【Task1】: Talk about one thing important you learned in your childhood and why was it important? 【思路】 The most important thing I learned from my parents is how to play the piano. My father is a music teacher, when I was a child, he taught me how to play the piano. Playing the piano makes me feel happy, whenever I play the piano before my friends or relatives, I will win some praise. In addition, I enjoy playing the piano very much, Whenever I play the piano, I will immerse myself into the sea of music and I will forget all the unhappy things. Then when I come back to study, I will feel more energetic. So, thanks to my father, I can live a more colorful life today. 【Task2】: Some people prefer to keep a busy schedu
【Task3】: 【学校通知】:学校准备下学期举行一个library training day，帮助刚入学的大学生学会使用图书馆查找资料。培 训完了还要布置作业(training后需要交一个assignment)，确保学生们都学会了。 【学生意见】:男生女生开始对话，男生说这个计划简直就是脑残，因为1:现在大多数人直接用自己的电脑连 接因特网查资料 2:即使需要用到图书馆订阅的journal，也可以用自己的电脑联网找，不需要他们 3:新生 本来就很忙了，heavy load of homework，还给他们布置作业，只会让他们更忙 【思路】 The reading material is about a plan made by school that the school library will have a training for freshmen about how to use the library. And after the training, students should hand in an assignment. The male student in the conversation disagrees with the plan for three reasons. Firstly, students can check information through internet on their own computers instead of going to library. Besides, searching for journals of the library doesn't need to ask the working staff, but only need to search on the computers. Finally, it's too busy to write assignments for freshmen because they already have plenty of assignments of their courses. 【Task4】: 阅读:tactile camouflage。猎物为了躲避触手系的捕食，会往身上放东西，这样即便被摸到也不会发 现了。 听力:比如海胆，为了不让海星吃到，就在身上佈满了石头贝壳，就不被发现了。 【思路】 【Task5】: 男同学遇到了困难。本来有个哈姆雷特的audition是安排在下周的，但却被通知提 前到了明天。但是今天晚上这位男同学还答应了帮他同学複习physics test，不好 意思爽约。解决方法:(1)找别人替这位男同学的朋友补习；(2)男同学先帮朋 友补习，然后再去audition，但这样能够用来准备的时间就非常少。 【思路】 【Task6】: 关于migrating animal’s characteristics 。一是这些 migrating animal由于要做长途迁徒to reach theirdestination，会更 focus，不会被别的东西easily disturb到；相对来说， local birds一发现 food就会很兴奋。二是migrating animal tend to move in straight line，从不为了吃的走折线，例子是 migrating shark会用geomagnetism 来定位直线移动，而 local animal就倾向于四处移动来找食物。 【思路】 【Task1】: Describe one school activity that you joined before and explain why it is meaningful. 【思路】 -English corner: get to know new friends; English improving -Lecture: learn something from the speaker; get the solution of puzzle. 【Task2】: Some people prefer their children to grow up in a small town while others prefer their children to grow up in a big city. Which do you prefer and why? Please include specific reasons and examples to support your choice. 【思路】 In my opinion, it’s better for a child to grow up in a small town. I believe that children can grow up more healthy in the countryside because they can breathe fresh air, run around or climb the mountains, instead of sitting all day in front of a computer screen and finally becoming overweight or near-sighted. Also, rural kids are more independent, mature and thus better prepared for the future than their urban counterparts as they are often asked to help their parents with housework or family business from a very young age. 【Task3】: 阅读:因为学校车位不够用，要取消一年级新生使用 parking lot 的资格。 听力:男学生不同意，主要原因有: (1) freshmen 里只有 85 个人有车要 park，根本缓解不了问题。 (2) 高年级的需求远远大于 100 个，而且将来的需求只会越来越多。 (3) 应该把荒废的 football playground 改建为停车场才能解决问题。 【思路】 The university has made a new parking policy in order to reduce the traffic problem on campus. The new policy says that first year students are not allowed to use the parking lots on campus. However, in the conversation the man disagrees with this policy. He says that freshmen only constitute a small number among those who apply for school parking. To ban freshmen from parking on campus won’t help solve the problem. In addition, he says that demands for school parking far exceed the available space, so the school should consider converting the empty space in front of the old football field into a new parking lot to meet students’ parking needs. 【Task4】: advancing crediting: a method that teacher help children to learn social appropriate behavior。小孩对 praise 的不同反映 你要是事先表扬他们 再让他们 做什么 他们就不太听话。你要是等做完事情后在表扬他们呢 他们就能够表现的好。 Lecture:教育学的教授讲一组实验:研究人员到一个小学去 给孩子们发糖 看他们能 不能 keep classroomneat.第一次 把小朋友放一个房间里 给他们糖吃 看他们在老师 不提醒的情况下有多少人把糖纸扔到地上 有多少人扔到垃圾桶里 大部分小孩子们 都把糖纸扔地上 DRORP ON THE GROUND 只有少数几个人扔到垃圾桶里。研 究人 员让老师一直表扬那些做的对的小朋友。还表扬那些表现好(behavior proper) 保 持环境的小朋友 说他们是干净的小孩。过了一段时间 再做这个试验 大部分小朋友 就都把糖纸仍在垃圾桶里。 【思路】 The lecture talks about one child education strategy: advancing crediting, which suggests giving children encouragement after they conduct certain behavior, in order to help them form proper social behavior. The speaker cites one experiment to illustrate this theory: some primary students were chosen and were distributed candies to each together in a room. Without any warning beforehand, the tester wanted to see how many students can put candy wrappers in the dustbin, and the result was that most kids just littered the wrappers on the ground. Then, the teacher praised those children who threw the wrappers in the dustbin and regarded them as good kids. Several days later, when the same experiment was done again, most children chose to put wrappers in the dustbin, and that was how the experiment effectively proves the theory advancing crediting. 【Task5】: 学生生物课没书，因为注册晚了，要么书店订下周才有，但是这周三节课要没书上， 而教授又布置很多reading assignment；要么找个去年上这个课的伙计以较低价格 买它的旧书，但问题是旧书记号太多，他用著觉得可能不顺手。 【思路】 The boy does not have his biology textbook because he registered too late for the course. He could either order a new book from the bookstore, or he could get a second-hand book from senior students at a lower price. I think it’s better to get a used book if he can. This is because ordering from the bookstore takes one week but the boy’s first class is only a few days away. It’s quite risky to go to the first class without the textbook since it would leave a bad impression on the teacher. To get a used book, on the other hand, is quick and less costly. The used book may have some markings on it but most of them should be the important points about the subject, which would be useful when the student studies the same subject. 【Task6】: Two things ancient human learned to keep the fire burning. (1) technical knowledge:发现木头烧完后 fire die out，偶然明白木头是燃料，要 keep burning 就要 add wood，这是 Technical understanding。 (2) social skills 如果大家同时睡觉，火就灭了，因此明白了合作的重要性，要轮流看火。 【思路】 The lecture explains how ancient humans managed to keep the fire burning. The first method is using technical knowledge. For example, when ancient humans noticed that fire died out when no wood was available to burn with, they realized that wood is the necessary fuel for fire and so they added additional wood to keep the fire burning. The second method is to use social skills. For example, ancient people were aware that if they all slept during the night without anyone looking after the fire, it went out easily. So they realized the importance of team work, taking turns to guard the fire and prevent it from going out, so every one of them could be safe and warm in the cold evenings. 【Task1】: One type of community work you want to take part in. 【思路】 I think people have to contribute to their communities, societies and humanity in some way, and doing volunteer work is a great way to achieve this. If I got the chance, I would like to become a care-giver volunteer for my neighborhood. I am a medical student and I believe that I have the professional skills and knowledge to help those local people who are sick, disabled or semi-bedridden. Even if they do not need medical attention, or if I am not qualified to do so, I could always help by doing laundry, cleaning, cooking, etc, for them, which is also important. I think it is truly gratifying work and I hope that if I need help someday, that someone might come to help me. 【Task2】: Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? It is never too late for an old person to receive higher education and get a university degree. 【思路】 it is a good idea -many old people never had a chance to receive higher education, but it does not mean they are not interested in learning or do not have the potentials -many senior citizens get bored and feet isolated after retirement, so going back to school is an excellent way out -in their academic studies, they start to use high technologies which narrow the generation gap 【Task3】: 阅读:学校对theatre专业的有新要求(requirement)，所有theater major的学生都要take trips offcampus and see a drama，每人要交35元的费用，看三次的演出。因为作为art student这样能更好地理解theater。听力:男同学同意。原因一，艺术专业的学生从reading中学不到真的东西，需要在观看戏剧中对character很好理解；原因二，real bargain，因为看一次演出的钱就不止35元，现在可以看三次。另外，可以free transportation。学校职业中心提供自传及Cover letter 修正服务?学生赞成 【思路】 The university has made a new rule concerning students who major in theater. They are required to take trips off campus and watch professional theatre productions, for which they have to pay 35 dollars. It is believed that this will help students to better study theatrical art. In the conversation, the boy agrees with this new requirement. He says that first, students can never really learn theater by only reading about a play or a film. They have to personally listen to them and watch them in order to form a deeper understanding of the story and its characters. Besides, he says that for 35 dollars you can see three plays, which is really a nice bargain, because normally it costs more than 35 dollars to see even one play. Plus the transportation is free! 【Task4】: 一个男生他很喜欢的历史课从下午被挪到了晚上，他喜欢这个课，因为课上 会讲很多他感兴趣的tradition和technology。 他同时是校篮球队(basketball team)的队员，晚上要练球，如果退出会让其他 队友失望。 【思路】 【Task5】: 一男一女的对话。女的说她的父母 weekend 要来 visit 她 她很兴奋 但是她的 apartment 很乱。自 己提出两个解决办法: (1) 而她父母是晚上到 在晚上之前 她有一个 chemistry meeting 如果她跷掉 meeting 可以回去打扫公寓 但这堂课 很重要 而落下的知识很难补回来; (2) 如果她在 meeting 结束后 rush home 然 后 clean the house 即使没有完全 clean 她的父母也会理解她。 还提到她的父母 不会在意她房间是不是乾淨 因为她们知道她不爱乾淨。 先总结听力 然后问你 她的方案哪一个更好。 注意:这题女生自己自言自语的 男生没给建议。 【思路】 The girl’s parents are coming to her school to visit her and they are going to stay at her rented apartment. But the girl’s apartment is too messy so she needs some time to clean the room before her parents arrive. The problem is that she has a chemistry group discussion to attend in the afternoon so she has two choices – to skip this group discussion and start cleaning the apartment right away, or to wait until after the group discussion to do this. I would recommend the girl to take the second choice. I think the chemistry group discussion must be very important for the girl because as she has mentioned, she is still confused about some important concepts in chemistry that need to be cleared up in this discussion. It would be a pity if the girl missed this opportunity. Also, the girl can explain to her parents that she has been too busy with her study recently to have time for cleanups. I think her parents would understand the girl. Anyway, her parents should already know that their daughter is not a person who pays much attention to cleanness and order. 【Task6】: farmer 选择 desirable feature 的品种种植作物。举了例子说wheat 原来很多成熟 的时候都倒在地上farmer 选择 那些不倒的继续种。peach 原来果实很小farmer 选择果实大的继续种植。让举例说明什么是选择性种植。 【思路】 The lecture talks about selective breeding of plants, which refers to the practice of selecting plants with desirable characteristics for future breeding. The lecture gives two examples of selective breeding. The first example is the wheat. When a field of wheat is fully ripe, some of the wheat stems bend down, so farmers would select wheat stems that do not bend for future propagation. The second example is the peach. The peach fruit used to be very small, so farmer would pick those bigger fruits to grow for the next season, so gradually the peach fruit becomes bigger. 【Task1】: Describe a tool or object that you rely on often in your daily life. Explain why it is important to you. 【思路】 Among the many things that I rely on daily in my life, there is a paper calendar placed on the right side of my desk which is certainly one of the most frequently used and also the most important. It allows me to keep track of dates, constantly reminding me of important days like public holidays,festivals, or anniversaries which are all highlighted on the calendar so I won't forget to send best wishes to my close friends and family members on these days. Moreover, I have the habit of marking my study or work plan on this calendar by circling the days that I should pay special attention to, like deadline for submitting my school assignment. 【Task2】: Do you prefer to do a job which requires you to travel a lot, or a job that allows you to work at a fixed location? 【思路】 Fixed location: travelling for work disrupts your daily routine. You may have to get up early to catch a flight or get home late because your train delay. (出差会打乱你的日常生活轨迹，可能需要起很早去赶航班或因为火车晚点而回家很晚) You may miss your favorite meeting with friends or family dinner. (可能会错过和朋友的聚会或家庭聚餐) The time on the way is extremely boring and exhausting. (出差的路上非常无聊) Travel a lot: I like enjoy the beautiful view all the way. It gives me time to think about many things that I may not have time to think. (我喜欢出差路途中的美景，这也给了我时间去思考平时没有时间想的事情) I can get acquaintance with others and enlarge my social circle. (能有更多机会认识他人，扩大社交圈) 【Task3】: proposal: the student suggests the university to allow students to have classes outside. reason1: fresh airstudents can better concentrate in a new environment reason2: they can put a bench or something on the lawn for the students to sit on listening: the man disagrees reason1: there are too many distractionsfor instance a friend who passes by may want to say hi or even a bird that flies by can distract the students. When they're in the classroomthey can simply close the door to make sure everybody concentrates. reason2: the space is limitedstudents usually bring their laptops with them to take notesthis means some people have to sit on the ground which is very uncomfortable and may affect their note-taking as well. 【思路】 【Task4】: 【名词解释】Reading: promotion risk. 人们期望获得升迁，但对公司有可能有不利因泰，这就是升职风险 【教授举例】说一个 computer software company 的 designer, 这个designer 给公司盈利很多，于是gave him a promotion 升他做supervisor. 但升职后发现他没有management skills. 最后公司只好让他走 【思路】 The reading passage explains the concept of promotion risk, which is the risk for a company to promote someone who possesses strong abilities in certain areas but is relatively less competent in other areas. In the lecture that follows, the professor gives an example of a software company which is willing to experience promotion risk. The company is considering promoting one of its software designers to a senior position, but it faces a risk of doing so. On the one hand, the designer has outstanding ability in software design and has contributed enormously to the company’s profit, which has made him a perfect candidate for promotion. On the other hand, this person has poor leadership skills, which makes him a less desirable choice for a leadership position. However, the company realizes that if it does not promote this designer, he may lose faith in the company and eventually leave, so the company is willing to take this risk of promotion. 【Task5】: Problem: 男生要在课堂上表演莎士比亚的喜剧，他朋友帮她演了一个角色，但是现在她生病了，感冒。Solutions: 女生建议:explain the situation to the professor改天演；男生不同意，reschedule到下周，下周还有另一个play要演；男生自己有个想法，说朋友愿意带病演出(女生说真是good friend)，但男生觉得不好(不人道)。 【思路】 In the conversation, the man met with a problem that his friend fell ill and might be absent from his play. There are two solutions for him to choose. The first one is to postpone the play. The second one is to ask his friends to perform as usual/ as for me, I think he should choose the second solution. In the first place, postponing the play will influence his schedule and may cause further problems. In the second place, since the friends is his good one, he can ask her to try to finish the play. Of course, he needs to make some changes in the play, enabling her to have more rest. 【Task6】: Two explanation about better memory 1 如果有学过同学科，印象就会比较深 刻，举音乐会当例子。 【思路】 【Task1】: If a foreigner friend comes to your country, what kind of food would you recommend and why? You would use past personal experience to support your answer. 【思路】 I would offer to take this foreign tourist to the most popular local restaurant in my city and recommend this wonderful Chinese cuisine, which is called kung pao chicken, diced chicken fried with chili and peanuts. Actually this is the most popular Chinese dish; you can find it in every Chinese restaurant, big or small. The 2008 Beijing Olympic Games even made it to the top of the official menu to cater to the myriad tastes of international guest. But I have another reason to recommend kung pao chicken, which has something to do with a cooking contest I won when I was in college. I spent days researching and experimenting with methods to improve ways to make the perfect kung pao chicken and finally I was able to impress the judges. So to recommend kung pao chicken also means opportunity to boast this particular experience in front of the foreign guest and hopefully win his/her praise. 【Task2】: Some people like to move about and live in different places. Others like to stay at one place all their lives. Which do you prefer and why? 【思路】 Personally speaking, I would prefer not to stay in one place but to move to different places, to work or to live. Firstly, moving around will enable me to broaden my horizons and enrich my knowledge. Within the diverse living environment, I will have more opportunities to make new friends in different places and observe and experience their different cultures. For example, I was used to having noodles as my main food when I was living in Tianjin, a city in northern China. But now rice has become my staple food when I am in Shanghai. Besides, you will be easily bored if you live in one place for too long. In this case, withdrawing from the old environment would be a great idea to liven up your life. The new neighborhood and working environment could effectively refresh you, getting you back to life again. 【Task3】: 新生参加skill course R: the college requires freshmen to take the skill course. L: man agrees. (1) college is different from high school and students need such kind of course to learn how to do research or write paper. (2) it’s a small group discussion course 【思路】 【Task4】: Alarm Calls:动物藉由发出 alarm signals 来告知同伴附近有危险。Alarm calls 可以帮助同伴逃离危 险 种族的生存率也就提高了。但有时也会藉行为驱赶同伴 以降低食物上的竞争(false alarm calls)。 听力:教授举例猴子群体生活 一起找食物并共用当有 predators 出没的时候，先看到的猴子会 screeching 来告知同伴 听到讯号的同伴就会躲到树上去免于受害;有一次却发现猴群找到了 food 准备要吃的时候某一隻突然 screeching 吓跑其他同伴。但週遭并没发predators 却看到 screeching 的猴子待在原地把食物吃光! 【思路】 1. advantage1) Help students form a good eating habit. (培养好的饮食习惯)2) Cutting down on the high-calorie food consumed can reduce the risk of obesity. (降低肥胖风险) 2. disadvantage1) More healthy food sometimes also means less tasty (不好吃)2) Students always like junk but delicious food, so the school canteen may lose a large amount of customers. (失去顾客来源)3) The cost of providing this food may increase and the school canteen may make less profit. (利润降低) 【Task5】: Problem: 男生需要在寒假的时候去帮历史教授写新书，不能回家。但他同时是篮球队员，需要每天去gym锻炼。不过学校的gym冬天不开门。Solutions: 1. 去town里面的gym. 有one-month-membership 刚好可以cover整个寒假。里面有他需要的所有器材。但是 75一个月太贵了。2.去户外跑步。 但是会很冷。 【思路】 The man is staying on campus for the winter holiday, and because he is a basketball player, he needs to use the school gym to exercise. However, the school gym is not open during the holiday. So the man could either purchase a one-month membership in a local gym, or he could exercise by running outdoors. I would suggest that the man exercise in the gym. This is because he is a basketball player and only a gym can provide the necessary exercise equipment he needs. Running is good but it’s not good enough for a professional basketball player. Plus it’s cold running outside in the winter. 75 dollars a month may be a little expensive, but the man only needs to use the local gym for one month, so it’s affordable. 【Task6】: marketing research about the product they sell (collect information for business marketing). (1)count-based，car manufacture利用这个方法通过大量调查各类人群买车的数量，结果是 without small children 的家庭买车的人数最多。有 small children的家庭买的少； (2)opinion based，调查没有小孩的家庭为什麽不买这个车，结果显示说是他们觉得车后座太 small，小 孩坐那不舒服，所以不愿意买。 【思路】 【Task1】: Describe a special friend in your childhood. Explain why this friend is special to you. Include reasons and details to support your response. 【思路】 I can't talk about my childhood without mentioning Tom. We have been neighbors since we were in primary school. We kinda stuck together wince we
【Task1】: Which of the following extracurricular activity do you consider the best for the community—planting flowers, cleaning the park, or recycling the trash? Please include reasons and examples in your answer. 【思路】 Planting flowers： Flowers make the community more beautiful (花朵让社区更美) It brings people together. (使人们团结在一起) By working together as a team, students will understand the importance of being part of a community. (团队合作使学生更能懂，团体的重要性) 【Task2】: Do you prefer to be a leading or supporting member in a group project? Give specific reasons and details in your answer. 【思路】 If I could choose, I would prefer to be a leader in a group project. Although being a leader in a group means more responsibilities, it also means I am given the chance to develop my leadership and management skills, which I think are very important in the current society. For example, when I am applying for a job, my resume would look a lot better if it could include a successful project I have personally led. Well I’m not saying supporting members are not important. It’s just that the work of a leader is more challenging, so it is more valued. Being the leader of a project also has the potential of stretching me to my limit, helping me find out what I can really do. 【Task3】: 阅读:学校要扩建 theater(proposal of adding seats in the Anderson Theater)。理由(一)座位不够， 很多 show 是学生们想去但买不了票的；(二)卖票给学校提供经济来源。 听力:女生反对。理由(一)大部分 show 都有位子，没见到几次能坐满的，多数时间很多空座，所以没 需要加 seats；(二)建造费用太大(这是 big investmentconstruction cost a lot )，卖票几年也不够回本呀。 【思路】 【Task4】: 阅读:讲了生态学中的cyclic population change，说在一个生态系统(ecosystem) 中，生物之间的数量(population)是互相影响的，捕食者(predator)和被捕 食者(prey)的数量有一个均衡点。 听力:教授举了一个例子来说明。讲一种mice和它的predator(可能是某种wolf) 之间互相影响。分三个阶段: (1)prey (mice)多，predator食物充足，population 增加； (2)prey少了，predator食物减少了，population 减少； (3)predator少了，prey又开始多起来了，如此循环，population 平衡。 教授说实际上第三阶段就是第一阶段，因为是cyclic，不断重複这三个阶段。 问题:结合对话和阅读材料说说population cycle change的定义和例子。 【思路】 【Task5】: 男生在student center等他朋友要把书还给他，但他朋友还没来，他又到时间要去看医生。 两个建议方案:(1)等男生看完医生再还他朋友，但要过几个小时才能回来，这本书他朋友急用要准备明 天的考试。(2)女生告诉他刚才在图书馆看到他朋友。让女生去图书馆把书还给他朋友，虽然有点远，对 女生来说有点不方便，但她不介意。 【思路】 【Task6】: 如果predator能够预知prey会做出什麽样的行为，那就便于他们捕食了。可是有的动物可以有一些 mechanism，让predator无法预知猎物下一步的行为。比如squid。(1)squid并不走直线，速度也不很定。 它会变速，走zigzag那种pattern，于是predator无法anticipate它的行为，就不好抓到它；(2)squid可以 变色。比如pink-blue-white这种。比如predator一直在盯著一个pink的东西跑，结果bang，pink的东西 不见了，来了个blue的，那麽predator就会confuse，于是squid就有机会escape。 【思路】 Predators can catch the preys easily by predicting preys' behaviors. But the professor says that some preys have certain mechanism to confuse predators so that they can escape successfully. Take squid species as an example. Firstly, they don't move in a line and they always change their speed. They often move in a zigzag pattern so predators can't anticipate their next behaviors, thus missing the target. What's more, squids can change color. For instance, predators have stared at the pink squid for a long time, but it suddenly changed its color into blue. Then the predators will be confused immediately, which will give squid a good opportunity to escape. 【Task1】: Describe an event or celebration you attended recently. Why people have a good time together? 【思路】 I recently attended my cousin’s wedding ceremony. My cousin is an engineer who is now living and working in the U.S. It was really a grand occasion. All the relatives including my 90 year old grandpa were present. I guess there must have been over a hundred people. We had a magnificent dinner at a restaurant. During the dinner we talked, proposed toasts to each other. There were traditional opera performances to watch. I guess everybody was having a good time except my aunt and uncle. The reason is that my cousin is their only son and after the wedding he’d have to go back to the States. Therefore my aunt and uncle won’t get to see him very often. 【Task2】: If you have time, would you choose to learn to play a new musical instrument or learn to play a new sport? 【思路】 I think I would learn to play a new sport. In fact, I’ve always wanted to learn how to play volleyball. I know the very basics, I guess, of hitting the ball over the net. But I have memories of being little and trying to play volleyball with my friends and not really understanding how to properly do anything. I couldn’t hit the ball hard enough, I didn’t know how to position my hands…I don’t think I scored a single point! And that was the last time I tried to play. So I think it would be fun if I could learn, finally, all the precise moves and maneuvers to play a decent game of volleyball! Maybe I could even challenge my friends to a match. 【Task3】: 先看了一个老师发的通告。通告中说 从下学期开始 每三次作业以后要安排一个单 独和老师见面的机会。考试后 老师会单独和每个同学谈话 分析试卷 这个时候同学 可以就不同的问题和关系的话题提问。男:这样很好啊 老师和你一起讨论试卷 你就 可以问任何你不懂的问题。平时拿到试卷 有的问题你不明白为什么错 但是又好意 思问 怕老师觉得你在抱怨。尤其是你分数比你想象的低的时候。这次正好有了个 机会可以和老师讨论试 卷 还不会让老师误会 因为你只是做了他让你做得事情。男: 一对一单独谈话的好处就是你可以问任何你感兴趣的问题。这在平时是很难得的机 会 尤其是在很多人一起上 课的情况下。 【思路】 The university announcement says that beginning from next semester, students are required to have an individual meeting with their professor after every three exams. In this meeting, the professor will talk about the student’s exam paper and the student can also ask questions about it. In the conversation, the boy thinks that this is a great idea. He says that by discussing about exam papers with the professor, students can know exactly why they’ve done some questions wrong. A private meeting with the professor is also a great chance to ask the professor questions on any topic the student may be interested in. Students often want to ask more questions but they hesitate to do so when they are in a big class with other students. 【Task4】: 阅读:niche constructions。 听力:南美丛林某种蚂蚁只栖息在一种树上，需要某个specific kind of tree to build nest，且吃那种树的叶 子。有其他树或植物在附近生长的话，蚂蚁就回去放毒，杀死他们，来确保有足够的空间和nutrients for the trees to grow。这样就他们赖以生存的树可以很好地生长，获得更多资源，进而枝繁叶茂，而蚂蚁的领地 也不断扩大。 【思路】 【Task5】: 女学生要申请一个工作，但得在明天早上之前送到申请表; 男的给两个建议:一个 开车送过去; 一个用express mail送 【思路】 The woman is trying to apply for a summer job at a magazine, but the application deadline is only one day away.She could either hand in her application to the magazine company personally tomorrow morning, or she could use the courier service to send her application. I would recommend the girl to go to the magazine company herself because this shows that she respects and values this work opportunity. This will help her leave a good impression to the people at the magazine. The courier service, on the other hand, may not reach the magazine company in time because sometimes things get delivered to the wrong address or just get lost. So to be on the safe side, she should go to the magazine company and hand in her application by herself. 【Task6】: 两种方法防护beach erosion 1. 造建筑barrier，用混凝土等材料 build construct in shallow water or near shore, 这种construct 减轻 force of the wave， decrease amount of water that reach the beach，降低被浪卷走的沙的数量浪就小了 2. 二是用新的沙子代替冲走的，比如建个泵把海里沙子抽上来，这样以后就会更多冲走新的，旧的就留下来了 【思路】 【Task1】: Nowadays robots are widely used in the society. What are the benefits and risks of this? 【思路】 As I see it, robots are here to stay, and are widely used in society. Robots have benefits and risks at the same time. They are used on land, in air, and on sea. Robots are being designed to perform surgical procedures, just like surgeons once performed. I saw one being used on YouTube. It was cool! The military is using robots to carry out secret missions. For instance, robots are now front line “soldiers”. They are being sent deep in the ocean where man can’t survive, and are finding all kinds of treasures. The risks of robots are just like any other artificial, man-made thing; it can break, malfunction, and be a danger. Also, the more robots are used, the more human labor is replaced. This could lead to unemployment, which is already a severe problem in the present day society. 【Task2】: Some people like to plan their free time. Other people spend their free time without any plan. Which do you prefer? Explain why. 【思路】 I always plan my free time carefully. I think it’s more and more difficult to have any free time nowadays, since every day we are busy with our work, study or family duties. So whenever we get the chance to spend a few days’ leisure time, we should cherish such time by making good use of it, which means to plan it in the first place. Take myself as an example. I have just finished a 7 day long holiday, which is an important traditional Chinese holiday during which time you are supposed to visit every one of your close family members. To me it’s like a mission impossible because I have a very big family. But with careful planning, I finally managed to visit every one of them by the end of the holiday! 【Task3】: Reading: the university is considering moving the student theater center from campus to the nearby downtown.1. downtown theater has a larger space，and it can contain more audiences.2. the new theater will have better technical facilities，so that students can get better light and sound while they are appreciating performances.Listening: 男生反对此计划。理由1. Audiences in the downtown theater are mainly students. It is quite inconvenient for them to drive for 20 min to get there to see performances, so few of them would like to go to the new theater. 理由2. The facilities in school theater are quite basic and easy to operate. However students are not professional and well-trained and the facilities in downtown theater will be too complex for students to operate.So students might end up with worse lights and sounds than what they have now. So better facilities are not necessarily good as in the school theater. 【思路】 The reading material is about an announcement that the university is considering moving the student theater center from campus to the nearly downtown for a larger space and better facilities. The male student disagrees with the plan for two reasons. First of all, the audiences in the downtown theater are mainly students. It is quite inconvenient for them to drive for 20 minutes to get to see performances, so few of them would like to go to the new theater. Secondly, students are not professional and well-trained. The facilities in downtown theater will be too complex for students to operate. So students might end up with worse lights and sounds than what they have now. So, better facilities are not as necessarily good as in the school theater. 【Task4】: Reading :natural consequence 讲的小孩做错事,大人口语不用惩罚,由着做错事 的结果来惩罚孩子。Listening:教授 5 岁的女儿经常把玩具放在后院,平常教授都 帮女儿收拾。一天女儿还是把玩具放在后院,教授没有帮收拾,那天晚上下雨,把 她的玩具损坏了,女儿在这件事后认识到自己的错误,以后再也不把玩具放在后院 了。 【思路】 Natural consequences” refer to the outcomes that happen as a result of an undisciplined behavior usually in children. The professor in the lecture uses his personal example to show how natural consequences are able to condition a child’s behavior without any interference from a teacher or parent. The professor’s five-year-old daughter had a bad habit of leaving her toys in the backyard after playing with them there. The professor had tried to discipline his daughter verbally many times but he always ended up putting away the toys himself. One day, the professor decided not to put away the toys for his daughter and left the toys in the backyard. It rained that night and all the stuffed toys were covered in mud, which made his daughter really sad. After this incident, his daughter realized that it was her own fault not to put away the toys after playing with them in the backyard and learned that she should never leave the toys there again. 【Task5】: 【学生困难】:一个女生和her friend要搬出校园，要share租a new apartment ，本来昨天已经看好了an apartment， 价钱合适，也很大just OK，准备今天下午去sign the contract for the apartment。但她今天自己又看到一个nicer的，larger and closer to school，就是价钱有点贵，她想租这个。想要的话，今天必须签合同否则就没了。但她室友went to hiking了， 要一周后才回来the next week。has no access to emails and mobile。So she can't be able to contact her friend to make a decision together. 女生不知怎办。【解决方案】: 女生给两个解决方案:方案1、sign the new contract for the new apartment which is more expensive，closer to campus，nicer and due today without her friend's opinion 。这个女生可以接受价格，但She doesn't know her friend's financial situation，担心她室友负担不起。方案2、stay with the previous apartment they have agreement on which has right price and a OK place，毕竟这个是两人一起同意的。但这个女生不喜欢。 【思路】 The problem the woman encounters is that she cannot get in contact with her friend to make a decision about an apartment she and her friend are going to rent together. The woman has two possible solutions. First, she could make the decision on her own without waiting to ask her friend’s opinion about the apartment. Second, she could stay with the previous apartment that they both agreed on. If I were the woman, I would choose the second option to stay in the agreed upon apartment. First of all, her friend might not like the second apartment or be able to afford the rent on it, which is more expensive than the place they agreed on. In addition, being a little away from campus is not such a big deal. I am sure there is public transportation available. 【Task6】: 讲marketing的celebration促销，有两种坏影响。 (1)overshadowing，使得消费者根本注意products informationexample :以前过个很搞笑的comedian 推销pizza，但是大家只能记住那个funny comedian，而不是pizza。 (2)controversial behavior，example:以前过个computer请famous movie star做广告，事后那个movie star在接受一个magazine採访的时候，说其实她not use so often。 【思路】 【Task1】: If a foreigner friend comes to your country, what kind of food would you recommend and why? You would use past personal experience to support your answer. 【思路】 I would offer to take this foreign tourist to the most popular local restaurant in my city and recommend this wonderful Chinese cuisine, which is called kung pao chicken, diced chicken fried with chili and peanuts. Actually this is the most popular Chinese dish; you can find it in every Chinese restaurant, big or small. The 2008 Beijing Olympic Games even made it to the top of the official menu to cater to the myriad tastes of international guest. But I have another reason to recommend kung pao chicken, which has something to do with a cooking contest I won when I was in college. I spent days researching and experimenting with methods to improve ways to make the perfect kung pao chicken and finally I was able to impress the judges. So to recommend kung pao chicken also means opportunity to boast this particular experience in front of the foreign guest and hopefully win his/her praise. 【Task2】: Agree or disagree: Watching sports programs on TV is not a good use of time. 【思路】 It is true that watching TV has negative effect on people. *To start with, watching TV for a long time not only does harm to our eyes and bodies, it may even dulls our wits. *Also, spending too much time on TV programs can reduce our communication with our friends and families. *Finally, people who spend too much time on TV are easily distracted by lots of entertainment shows. 【Task3】: 是学校建一个lounge for commuter 女生完全同意2 个原因:1。可以一起学习， 2。 可以share information 比如拼车钱 【思路】 【Task4】: 阅读:research rivalry affect(competitive rivalry)，意思是:做对照实验时，两组被实验人员不能互相认识，否则会影响实验结果以致不准。听力:教授举了例子，说有个生产energy bar食品的公司，做了个跑步实验，有实验组和对照组。实验中有有两组跑步运动员athletes:给第一组athletes每天都吃energy bar，不给第二组athletes吃energy bar。研究两组athletes的跑步速度是否会提高。如果第一组athletes中的一人是第二组athletes中的一人的朋友，第二组athletes就会知道第一组athletes每天吃补药，而自己所在的这一组没有给吃energy bar，但是他们不想就这麽输掉，每天都很努力的练习。结果as a result，两组athletes的速度都变快了run faster。这个实验就分不清这个energy bar是否有效。 【思路】 【Task5】: P: woman is going camping, but she doesn’t have tent. S: (1) borrow one from friends, but it’s too shabby. (2) buy one, but it’s too expensive and it’ll be a waste of money if she doesn’t like camping any more. 【思路】 【Task6】: 动物的社会合作行为(social cooperation)对动物进食行为(feeding)的影响。观 点:社会合作行为 提高了动物进食的效率。两个例子证明: 1)鹿的进食。一隻鹿 单独进食的时候 必须随时保持对捕食者(predator)如狼和熊的警觉 因此进食的 速度会变慢。而如果一群鹿一起进食 可以轮流站岗 其他鹿也可以安心进食 因 此进食速度提高。 2)蜜蜂共用食物来源的资讯。一隻蜜蜂在远处发现了食物源 通常是花。它回到蜂巢(Hive) 然后通过 跳特殊的 舞 如 O 字舞和 8 字舞 来告知 其他蜜蜂食物源的位置 以及距离这样整个蜂巢的蜜蜂可以更有效的利 用这个食 物源。 【思路】 【Task1】: Your University is planning to allow students to watch TV in their dormitories. What is your opinion and why? What are the advantages and disadvantages of watching TV in dormitories? 【思路】 Positively speaking, elimination of televisions in the dorm may effectively avoid noise. On one hand, dormitory is where students get themselves relaxed and rested and a quiet surrounding ensures the quality of their spare time. On the other hand, some students may want to study in the dorm, and the environment without the interruption of television help them focus. However, there might also be some disadvantages of this. For example, some students enjoy watching news and this is considered the easiest and most direct access to the outside world. If televisions are removed from the dormitory, those students may get disappointed. 【Task2】: Some college students like to spend their free time studying another course or doing schoolwork. Others like to join a club and enjoy social activities. Which way do you think is better and why? 【思路】 Club: We can make friends with people share similar interests in the activities. Also, club activities provide us with relaxing environment and warm up exercises. (我们可以再活动中交到志趣相同的朋友，同时也能让我们放松并进行热身) Joining club activities establishes a platform on which we can present our ability and improve our confidence. (加入活动俱乐部能让我们展现自己的能力并提升自信) Study: In order to find a better job after graduation, I’d like to learn another course. Using free time to learn saves me a lot of time. After all, it takes years to learn another course, if I don’t make use of free time. (为了毕业后能找到更好的工作，我选择再学习一门课程。利用课余时间学习帮我节省不少时间，毕竟如果不好好利用空闲时间，还要再花几年才能学一门课程) Learning makes me feel enriched, I don’t have to waste my time thinking about what to do at free time. I can make friends with hard-working students, and we can discuss with each other if we have problems in study. (学习使我感觉充实，这样就不必思考空闲时间做什么了，同时我能认识不少勤奋的同学们，有问题的时候可以一起讨论) 【Task3】: 【学校通知】有学生组织了一个乐队 他们想利用中午的时间在学校的草坪上(a large opening area)上做免费演出。【学生 意见】反对。第一:中午并不是一个 好的时间 学生时间其实很紧 他们在这个时候可能也会学习 或者 reading 产生 noise吵到别人。第三:lawn 也不是个好地方 学生有可能是些 in-door type 而且 坐在草坪上会压坏 grass。所以 建议在晚上 这个时候学生多是 relax 的时候 并且选择一个 in door 的地方。 【思路】 The school jazz band is planning to offer free concerts in the afternoon using a large opening area on the school lawn. However, in the conversation, the girl disagrees with this plan. First, she says that having a jazz concert in the afternoon is going to create a lot of noise and disturb students who are studying or reading nearby. Second, she is concerned that the school lawn may be damaged if too many students come to the concert. So in the girl’s opinion, holding the concerts in the evening and in an indoor place might be a better option. 【Task4】: 阅读:Plants Reaction Defense the reading focuses on the process of plant reactions, which might have 2 steps, one is releasing chemicals from the plant that is being damaged, the other is chemicals go through air and initiate surrounding plants to release their own chemicals to keep away from damages.听力:Later, according to the professor, the process is well exemplified by a plant called sagebrush?In the exp, a plant was cut manually for the purpose of imitating insect bite, and chemicals released were detected under proper equipment used by scientists. As a consequence, other plants next to the hurt one would keep their leaves in good condition. And scientist later found that is because other plants secreted their own different chemicals to protect themselves by the induction of chemical signal from the original plant. Researchers cut the leaves of sagebrush (a kind of bush growing up in desert) plants to mimic the damage caused by insects. The sagebrush plants responded to release a kind of chemical as a warning signal. In response, the other plants nearby get the signal and release their own chemical that makes their leaves less tasty to plant-eating insects. 【思路】 【Task5】: 女学生上学忘了带自製的沙拉午饭，下午还要连上三节课。两个选择，一回宿舍赶快去取，但可能 上课迟到。二在学校买，但是贵。问题:如果是你会怎麽做? 【思路】 【Ta
【Task5】: 举办读书会:The man join in a study group and took turns in 7 member’s home for dinner, after dinner will discuss learning today is his turn, but he tested in the lib this afternoon forget this matter, and too late to go home for cooking. Two solutions:(1) Go to the restaurant and buy some food, the food is tasty but very expensive;(2) Call each classmate and ask them to come later give time for him to cook, but everyone will be hungry.题目:你的意见。 【思路】 【Task6】: Animals that hatch from eggs 会在蛋壳里的时候就会製造出一些声音来 communicate that they are ready to hatch. 「教授举例」第一个目的:当有很多 eggs 的时候it is very important that 这些 eggs 在同一个时间被 hatch 出来 而不会 出现 hatch 晚的 baby 被妈妈遗弃了。比如 ducks 一个 duck 要 hatch 了 就会发出 clicking noise 其他的 ducks 也会发出 同样声音 告诉妈妈 我们都要出来了 别把我们忘了的意思。第二个目的是让妈妈帮助自己成功地破 壳出来。比如 crocodile 他的 eggs 是埋在 mud 里的baby crocodile 要破壳 出来的时候 就会 scratch the inside of the shell 告诉妈妈 然后crocodile妈妈就 会把 mud remove 掉 否则 baby crocodile 出不来。 【思路】 The lecture talks about a phenomenon in which animals that hatch from eggs would make some sound in order to communicate that they are ready to hatch. They do this for two purposes, first of all, when there are a lot of eggs, it is important for them to hatch at the same time, otherwise they are likely to be abandoned by their mother. For example, when a duck is about to hatch, they would make clicking noise, so would other ducks in order to tell their mother not to forget them. The second purpose of the sound is to get their mother to help them get out of the shell successfully. For example, crocodile eggs are buried in mud, when baby crocodile is about to break through their eggs, they would scratch the inside of the shell to tell their mother, who would remove the mud. Otherwise, the baby crocodile would not be able to get out. 【Task1】: Which of the following characteristics is the most important for a student to be successful? Self-motivating, hard-working, intelligent 【思路】 hard-working 1. gain much knowledge than others 比别人学到更多知识 2. increase the ability to handle stress 增强抗压能力 【Task2】: Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?Young people today are more informed about the world events than their parents when they were young.Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 【思路】 I agree that young people today know more about the world than their parents did in the past. The first reason is that young people nowadays can have much quicker access to world information. In the past,people mainly depended on newspaper and television for world news. Both were slow in reporting the latest events. But today, with the help of the Internet,and social media like Facebook and Twitter, young people can know all major events happening in every corner of the world instantly. Another reason is that the world is simply getting smaller. With globalization, information travels much more freely and quickly across continents. International trade,immigration, travel and transportation have all made young people much more aware of global events. 【Task3】: Reading: In the letter the student suggests the school to remove the big-screen TV in the cafeteria because it is too noisy. Some students usually study there. And also students usually discuss with each other there. But now nobody discuss questions there.Listening: The man disagrees with the suggestion in the letter for two reasons. First, the TV is for students to relax. If students want to study, they should go to library. Second, students are big enough to make decision for themselves and no need discuss with others. 【思路】 【Task4】: 阅读:Closeness-communication bias。心理学里面有个学说是讲你跟你很熟悉的人反而交流有障碍， 因为你对熟悉的人不会再去可以解释你的习惯和习性。 听力:教授举例，一个学生和以前的教授很熟悉，他们经常去义大利餐馆吃饭。他决定和新来的教授和以 前的教授一起去吃个饭。跟新来的教授讲餐馆的资讯很清楚，位置、时间都很详细，跟以前的教授直说去 经常去的餐馆的老位置。新来的教授准时出现在餐馆，但是以前的教授却去了另外一家餐馆。请你根据例 子解释一下Close communication bias 【思路】 【Task5】: 一个学生回家度假忘带了吉他回学校，但是马上就有一个他的乐队的演奏会，他面 临两个选择，一个是回家拿吉他，但是他这周很忙，周末还得写一篇论文。第二个 方案是借室友的吉他。他的室友的吉他质量不错，符合演奏会的需要，但是不够自 己的好，而且他也习惯用自己的吉他。 【思路】 【Task6】: marketing strategy.讲到一种叫 second interest 的策略 就是商家通过买一送一的 方式吸引顾客 增加销售量。讲 到的例子是买电脑的通过买一台免费送 game video 吸引也喜欢游戏的顾客。还可以通过教顾客一些怎么使用电脑的课 程来与顾客保 持联系 或者就免费送这种课程 一直联系顾客的话也许下次顾客想要买与电脑相关 的产品时就还是会来 这家店买。 【思路】 The lecture talks about a strategy often used in marketing called second interest, which means that a company can give some free products or services related to their primary products in order to boost the sales of its primary products. Two examples are given. The first example is a computer store trying to sell their computers. They can give out free video games to its potential customers. Those who are interested in the video games may later decide to purchase their computers. The second example is for the computer store to offer free courses on computer knowledge and operation. By doing so the company maintains a close relationship with its customers, and when these customers want to purchase a computer they may think about this company and purchase computers from it. 【Task1】: What are the advantages of furthering one’s education in a foreign country? Give specific reasons and details. 【思路】 Studying overseas has a number of advantages. Firstly, it may give students access to knowledge and facilities such as laboratories and libraries which are not available in their home country. Furthermore, by looking abroad students may find a wider range of courses than those offered in their home country, and therefore one which fits more closely to their particular needs. Finally, students learn to be independent and more adaptable to a new environment. These are important qualities for future success. So I would say it is good for students to study in a foreign country. 【Task2】: Some people prefer to have classes during the day and do part-time jobs in the evening while others prefer to have classes in the evening and do part-time jobs during the day. Which do you prefer? 【思路】 I prefer to have classes during the day and a part-time job in the evening. That’s mainly because if I’m in a lecture class in a warm dark room and it’s getting later into the evening, there’s a very good chance I’m going to be falling asleep at my desk! That’s not helpful to my studies and it definitely doesn’t make my professors happy if they notice. So, I much prefer to go to class in the daytime when the sun is shining and I’m wide awake. I might still be sleepy at my evening job, but at least there I’m continually engaged by my co-workers and customers. They kind of keep me alert. I’m talking to people and not just sitting in silence. I feel like everything just works out better that way. 【Task3】: Reading : 关于停车场不够要改造停车场。有人建议多建停车场。Listening: 对话里头女的不同意。因为1.图书馆和食堂边上都可以停，而且走两步没什么问题。2. 校园绿化本来就不多，所以不可以把绿地改造成停车场。 【思路】 【Task4】: Reading: 动物之间 cooperation,协同作战抵御捕食者 Listening: 动物迁徙时,如果一只停下来喝水,其他也会一起停下喝水,再继续一起迁徙,因 为 there might be predators like lions on the dry open grass, 单独行动很 危险。 【思路】 The reading passage defines a term called social facilitation. It refers to the cooperation between animals in order to defend themselves against predators. The lecturer further illustrates this term using the example of animals during migration. When a group of animals begin their journey of migration, they may encounter dangers posed by predators. In order to minimize the risk of being attacked by predators, these animals always act together. For example, when an individual member of a group is thirsty and stops to drink some water, all the other members of the group will also stop and drink water. After all members have finished drinking water, the whole group will then move on. This is because there might be predators like lions in the open grass. If an individual acts alone, it runs more risk of being attacked. 【Task5】: Conflict – history paper due but dorm closed during spring break Solution: stay with friends or stay at professor’s place. 【思路】 【Task6】: Lecture: 讲广告。教授说一种广告是让大家记住商品名字。然后讲了How to do it and why it is important to 记住商品名字(问题就是让你总结这个) How:repeat the name over and over againshow the name on thescreen of the TV example:一个洗衣机叫“quick washing” Why:(2点)1.people are likely to buy something. they know the name of 2.把产品的名字和advantages要对上号，不然消费者光知道advantages但不知道是哪个东西有这些优点也白搭啊。问题广告的作用是什么，为什么让顾客知道name很重要? 【思路】 The lecture explains how a piece of advertisement can be designed to make the viewer remember the name of the product, and why is it important to do so. It uses the example of an advertisement for a washing machine called “quick washing”. To make viewers remember this name, the advertisement not only repeats the name over and over again but also illustrates visual image of the name on the TV screen. The lecture then explains that it is important for viewers to remember the name of a product in an advertisement, and to associate all the advertised benefits of this product with this name, because otherwise the advertisement would be pointless. 【Task1】: Describe the experience of you doing something that you did not want to do. 【思路】 I was very tired on a bus, I offered my seat to an old man with a little girl. At first, the old man called the girl to seat. To my surprise, the little girl is very thoughtful,she insist his grandpa to sit. 【Task2】: Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Children should be required to help with household tasks as soon as they are able to do so. 【思路】 yes,i think that doing household tasks should become part of their family duties as children are growing up. -this because helping with household tasks take off some burden on their parents. -it also provides children with a food opportunity to acquire skills. -finally,encouraging children to do domestic chores helps to develop their sense of responsibility for their own family. 【Task3】: 阅读:图书馆借书效率太低，学生写了一封信提议学校Improve library，集中两个方面，一个是增加可以查书的电脑；另一个是add faculties，增加更多的checkout counter。听力:男生表示很支持。第一，很多学生在图书馆发邮件做research，要排队才能用上电脑look up books；第二，这些faculties都是学生可以增加工作机会。 【思路】 【Task4】: 阅读:developmental response就是植物可以调整自己适应环境的改变。听力:教授举了pine trees作为例子。这种树可以长在阴凉地方或者sunny place。长在阴凉地方，SOIL湿，就不需要发达extended roots system去生存。长在阳光好的地方，土地乾，需要发达的根系汲取充足的水分。 【思路】 【Task5】: 男孩本来在school book store兼职，可是back 伤了。两个选择:(1) 还在book store，但是做casher收钱。只能做早班，但有时间衝突，早上他要去物理学习小组，因为这个学习小组让他的物理进步很大，他不能不去。(2) 找别的工作，比如去学校cafeteria刷碗。在餐厅刷碗时间很自由，但是不在book store 他买textbook 就没有折扣了。 【思路】 1. purchase from the bookstore 1) We can read whenever we want without thinking about returning it (随时可以读) 2) We can make notes and highlights if we want, which helps us review the content of the books (可以随意做笔记) 3) The book from library might be worn out since many people have read it (借的书很旧) 2. borrow a book 1) Save money (对于没有收藏价值的书还是借比较好) 2) More environmental-friendly (更环保) 【Task6】: 洞穴壁画。 (1)洞穴画裡有大量动物主题,而且有一些是当时的首要狩猎对象,还有一 些箭的图案,受伤的动物,所以表现的 都是狩猎场景。 (2)有出现人身兽头的图像,说 是因为他们常常用动物头伪装成动物打猎,所以画这些画。 (3)史前人类作画很多时 候是因为认为画有魔力,可以通过作画影响一定的现实,所以画出来的狩猎场景就是 为了 保证打猎顺利而作 听力:反驳阅读,给出理由是: (1)洞穴裡有大量的动物主题,但 也有犀牛和猫,这两样不怎麽被狩猎,而且很多画的动物也没有 wounded 啊; 还有根 本就没那个时候最常被狩猎的动物—驯鹿,所以说动物主题和打猎不一定有关系。 (2)壁画上的人身兽头是因为当时的人们相信他们的祖先的灵魂会附在动物身上。 为了和祖先交流,他们会举办一 些仪式活动,这些兽头很可能是为了这种仪式才画上 去的。而且说是猎人,那麽打猎的活动猎人形象应该是站著的,可是画上的人是水平 姿势的,所以这个解释站不住脚 (3)这个 magical power 在不同的文化中有不同的含 义啊,in some case,这是一种仪式,actually the magical power their ancestors believe in is that they can communicate with the animals living around. 【思路】 【Task1】: The advantage and disadvantage of eating in class. 【思路】 可以结合自己的经历去展开，以学习效率的问题去扣题，比如： 1.我认为好处是，因为常常没有时间吃早饭，饿着肚子学习效率低，所以允许在课堂上吃东西对身体好，节省时间，也能改善听课质量 2.我认为课堂上吃东西不好，因为各种食物的味道和咀嚼的声音会干扰同学们的注意力，还可能在教室留下一些污渍，而课堂是一个学习的地方，我觉得在一个安静，整洁的学习环境更有利于我们的学习效率 【Task2】: Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Personality changes as one grows older. 【思路】 Many people say that personality is genetically determined, but I believe that it changes with age. For example, as people reach middle age, they tend to become more mature and less dependent on others. They care more about their work, responsibilities, and those in their lives. When people get old, they are less energetic and become less open to new ideas and concepts. These are all personality changes that naturally occur when people get older. Another possible factor of personality change is education. As knowledge accumulates over the years, people's understanding of the world or of themselves may both change, leading to a different pattern of personality. 【Task3】: 有个人在校刊上说要申请给 nature club 更多经费。听力里女的说 不一定要跟 club 才能接近自然 还有进了自然也不一定学到啥东西。 【思路】 The student letter asks for more funding for the school’s nature club, so the club can organize more activities to get students close to the nature and learn from it. However, the girl in the conversation disagrees with this proposal. She says that many students don’t have the free time for such activities. For those who do have time and want to see the nature, they don’t really have to join a club; they can simply take a bus to get to the place they like. With a student pass you even don’t need to pay for the ride. Secondly, joining a nature club does not necessarily mean that you can learn from nature. You need some kind of guidance, like when you are learning any subject, so a nature club does not really help much if it only gets you close to nature. 【Task4】: Psychology-Priming的概念，很多人会根据以往先入为主的印象判断别人的行为， 教授举了两个例子: 1)一个女子搭公车时如果一边回想自己大学时代读书、作报告、考试的日子， 接 著上来一个年轻男乘客坐在她旁边，男子正低头在笔记本上写字，女子心裡就会认 为这个男的是学生，正在准备他的作业或报告； 2)假使这女子搭车时刚读完一本诗集，同样来一个男乘客坐在她旁边写字，她心 裡就会认为这个男的应该是诗人。 【思路】 【Task5】: 男生约了 Tina 在 bookstore 门口还她笔记，因为明天要考试了，他之前向 Tina 借来看的，现在要还 给她。但是等了 15 分钟 Tina 还没有来，打电话也没接，男生马上要去做 part time job 了。 女生给了 2 个建议，(1)送去 Tina 的宿舍，但男生说这样他的 part time job 就要迟到了；(2)可以通过 campus mail，然后给 Tina 的手机留言，但是男生说不知道 mail 好不好用，怕 Tina 下午才能收到笔记， 来不及复习。 【思路】 in the conversation, the man needed to return the notes to tina, but she did not show up. there are two ways to solve the dilemma. the first one is to go to tina`s dormitory and leave the notes there. the second one is to leave a message through campus mail and ask her to bring the notes back. as for me, i think the man should leave the notes in tina`s dormitory. after all, she lent the notes to him. in order to avoid delaying, the man needed to make some sacrifice of his part time job. besides, is he chooses to leave a message to her, it would be late for tina to review the contents. so i firmly believe that he should send the notes to tina`s dormitory. 【Task6】: Animals communicating before they hatch 两个例子: Ducks:在还没有破壳的时候就会发出讯号通告其他同伴，大家可以同时破壳，才 不会被妈妈忘记而导致死亡。 Crocodiles: 在还没有破壳前跟妈妈发出讯号，请妈妈把盖在他们蛋上面的mud移 开，才能够顺利的破蛋而出。 【思路】 【Task1】: Which campus improvement do you suggest your school to invest in?Swimming pool, cafeteria or dormitory. Please give specific reasons to support your opinion. 【思路】 swimming pool: students' health after school activities cafeteria:create a healthy diet expand the cafeteria dormitory: improve living conditions add new facilities 【Task2】: Between the following two places, where would you choose to live? 1. Big and new place but far from your workplace and/or university 2. small and old place but near your workplace and/or university 【思路】 I would choose to live near a small, old place near a university for these reasons. As a student attending a local university, I rely on the convenience of its location to housing, shopping and entertainment. Since I don’t own a car, I depend on public transportation to get to school, work, shopping centers, and to entertainment. A small, old place can be affordable, clean, and safe. I prefer the closeness of living near my neighbors, and for everything that I depend on to survive from day to day. I also save money which I can use to pay for my tuition and books. Living in a small, old place has more to offer than its size, and each day brings a new experience. 【Task3】: 学校要成立arts club，对学生没什麽要求，且可以让学生半价参观博物馆。男学 生认为很好。他一直很喜欢艺术课。且半价他可以欣赏到本来很贵的艺术作品。 【思路】 【Task4】: 阅读:一种现象“passive XXXXX 讲的是 有些人总认为 outcome is negative in the future 所以这些人一般 都会特别努力避免最后的坏结果。 听力: professor 举了个例子 说他和他同事去参加会议 然后从机场出发每个人都带了 suitcase 和 carry on bag 。 但是下飞机后 他们的 suitcase 丢了 不能及时送到。他的同事 就是那种经常想坏结果的人 所以他准备了 extra clothes in his carry on bag 而 且也把所有重要资料放在了 carry on bag 裡所以他的同事不用担心。但是教授 自己属于不 会想像坏结果的人 所以他就什麽都没带 只能现买衣服然后重新列 印重要的资料。 【思路】 The reading passage introduces a theory called “anticipation of negative outcome ?”. According to this theory, when people anticipate a negative outcome in the future, they may take precautionary measures to try to prevent this outcome. The professor further explains this term by giving an example involving his colleague and himself. One day the two of them took a flight together because they had a meeting to attend. They both had a suitcase and a carry-on bag. They checked in the suitcase and took the carry-on bag on board. However, when the plane arrived and they went to collect their suitcases, they were informed that their suitcases were delayed . His colleague seemed to have anticipated this because he had put in extra clothes and all his important documents in his carry-on bag, so he did not have worry too much about the delay of the suitcase. The professor, on the other hand, did not make such preparations so he had to purchase some clothes and print out some documents again. 【Task5】: 听力文章大意：女学生想上Thomson 教授的经济学课，但它还差4个学分required classes要修，所以她不知道如何安排。 她可以下学期再选但她下学期还有份兼职要做；她可以旁听但是没有学分。audit the class or sign up this class later. 【思路】 【Task6】: The reading passage introduces the conception of scarcity in economy. It means shortage of something. In the listening passagethe professor gives two examples. In a store sells jacketsif the customers are told there are only a few jackets left in store and if missing this chance means no more jackets for thempeople will run into the store and check if there is anything suits them just in case they will regret in the future. Similar principleif they are told that one day sale is on Friday and they can get exclusive discounts only on that daypeople will also come in on that day and buy off those jackets like crazy. 【思路】 【Task1】: Describe the most important decision that you have ever made. Please include specific details in your answer. 【思路】 决定： When I was eighteen, I had to decide whether to go to college near my home or on the other side of the country. 过程： It stumped me for several weeks, honestly. I was about to start my adult life; whatever I chose could drastically alter my future! Was I going to have the comforts of home or the adventure of a new place? Eventually, I decided to attend the college across the country. 【Task2】: The school should let students buy a laptop rather than use the computers in the computer lab. 【思路】 buy: use laptop in dorm, classroom or library,flexible; do something relax in the spare time. lab:save money; easy access for some expensive software 【Task3】: 一学校要求本科生都要选一门艺术课(musictheater 等)，但学生写信觉得不 应该强制，因为有些学生在校外自己已经学了艺术课了，比如写信的学生他自己 就在校外学了violin。而且学生可以提交sample of their work来证明自己学过。 学生意见 :对话里的学生不同意信里的学生的意见(就是说对话里的学生觉得 有必要强制学习一门艺术课)理由1:就算你在校外已经学过一门艺术课，也可 以学别的art course， 比如学music的可以学photograph，这样可以explore different areas理由2: professors都很忙的，没时间看那麽多学生submit的 sample. 【思路】 【Task4】: 阅读:解释commensally relationship。Commensally relationship is associated to two different species animals that live together. One get benefit from this relationship and the other one get no harm or benefit.听力:The professor raises a sample of P-crap (I don't know what it is). A P-crab is a kind of small marine animals that lives in the bottom of ocean. In order to avoid attacks from other animal sit use the shield (not sure) made by another kind of animal to protect itself. In the meantime, that kind of animal has no harm at all. 【思路】 【Task5】: a male student wants to move into new house, there are lots of furniture need to move. 2 solutions: first is to rent a truck, but presently there are no small truck, only big trucks are available. it is really expensive and not necessary. Second is use a car of a friendbut it will take
【Task6】: 动物的防御机制defense mechanism。有些动物喜欢群居group living，群居有好处也有坏处。比如危险疾病dangerous disease会在全族范围内传播肆虐，整个种族有灭绝的危险。面对这样的困难，动物进化出不同的机制进行自我防御。（1）behavior mechanism。蚂蚁会自我清洁，尤其是外出寻找食物的买一比在colony内部居住的蚂蚁自我清洁的次数更多，因为他们需要外出，有将外部病毒带回种群的危险。（2）Bodily mechanism，蚂蚁长出腺体会分泌一种物质，用于清除病毒以保护自己。 【思路】 【Task1】: Which one you will learn: play a piano, swim, and repair a car? 【思路】 swim 1. a great way of exercise. 一种很好的锻炼 2. a healthy lifestyle. 良好的生活方式 3.won't get drowned 不会溺水 【Task2】: School is now prohibiting students from bringing laptops to classdo you think it is a good idea? What are the advantages and disadvantages? 【思路】 advantages: 1. convenient for students to find information online. 方便学生在网上查找资料 2. can take notes witht laptop efficiently. 用笔记本记笔记更有效率 disadvantages: 1. distracts students from study. 分散注意力 【Task3】: Announcement: 校报由周一到周六每天一期改为一周一期，由于经费和学生阅读少； Listening: 男的反对 1. 一是说校报可以增加广告 2. 二是增加校报提供的地点 【思路】 【Task5】: 【 1 个问题】 The man has a problem: he cannot ride his bicycle in cold weather anymore. 【 2 个建议】 They discussed out two solutions: (1). The man can share his roommate's car, but their class schedules are different; (2). He can buy a used car from one math student at a reasonable price, but owning a car is actually expensive. 【思路】 From the conversation we learn that the man has decided not to ride his bicycle because it’s getting unbearably cold, so he needs to find an alternative means of travelling to and from school. In the conversation the man and women have discussed two solutions. The first solution is carpooling with his roommate who’s got a car, and the second solution is purchasing a used car from another student. I would prefer the man to share his roommate’s car because, first of all, the cost of buying a car can be quite high, even if it is a second hand. And if you take the maintenance cost into consideration, it would probably cost more than the boy could afford. Secondly, I think the difference in class schedules between the man and his roommate does not have to be a problem because the two of them can always find ways to accommodate each other’s schedule so each of them can arrive at the school neither too late nor too early. 【Task6】: Where to build observatory – away from city (no light) and desert (dry air). 【思路】 1. make phone calls to parents.(给家人打电话时最常见的解决想家时难过的办法，my parents will always cheer me up and tell me some interesting things happen in my family)2. Write a letter or email(有些时候电话不能很好地表达对父母的思念，这时候可以写信，来诉说你对他们的爱)3. Talk to your friends (跟朋友聊天)4. Keep yourself busy in order to distract your attention(做一些其他的事情来分散注意力)5. Take out the photos of your family and think about the happy time you spent together. (看照片) 【Task1】: Describe one way to improve the system of education in your country. Use specific details and examples to support your opinion. 【思路】 It is hard to define a perfect solution to the improvement of education system since it’s such a complicated and multifaceted subject. But if I have to, I would like to say that diversifying the evaluation methods of the admission into the university will definitely help a lot. That means we should put more attention to students’ other performances rather than depend solely on their academic scores. For example, students’ performance as well as attendance of those so-called less important subjects such as art, PE and so forth should be taken into account when assessing their qualification. Only if we carry out this principle in school can students take those subjects seriously and could have a chance to get really stretched. How to improve the education system is a long-term problem confronting both parents and the government .It could turn out to be a bigger one if we give an inappropriate response to it. 【Task2】: some universities expect students to choose their major when they enter university.Others let students wait until the second or third year. Which do you think is better and why? 【思路】 till the second or third year Students must master the basic theories acknowledge before choosing their major. They need time to consider a certain direction. 【Task3】: 阅读部分:一个建议信,标题:No laptop in class. 上课的时候,很多人用电脑 Sending Email or playing computer games. 1 在课上使用电脑,会使学生无法 concentrate in class 2 It is easily to take notes by pens and papers. Using computer to take notes is not necessary. 听力部分:男生不同意。1 因为电脑而不专心,那是那个学生的problem. 我们 都是Adults,在大学里不光要学课程,也要学习如何concentrate.而学生应该有权 利to choose,只要在课上do not disturb others。2 It is not fair. Some students, like me, typing is faster than writing. 如果不让用电脑了,很多东西会记不下。 【思路】 【Task5】: 男生把他的数学书借给朋友了，结果朋友外出的时候正好赶上下雨，给弄湿了，他没法看了，他又不想让他朋友 buy him a new book，因为这本书很贵，他朋友没钱，而且他朋友也不是故意弄湿的。女孩说可以去图书馆看啊，男的说，他问了教授，教授说可以在 reserve book of the library 看，他说可以啊，但是不方便，只能在图书馆看，而且其他人还有可能看，他就不能一直看了。 【思路】 【Task6】: 动物两种遮阳方式，一身体特徵，非洲hippo产生油性皮肤保护层。二行为措 施，大象吐泥巴。 【思路】 【Task1】: Your friend has suddenly received a lot of money. What do you think is the best way for your friend to spend this money? Include reasons and details to support your response. 【思路】 Donate: He can donate the money to help children who cannot afford tuition. (他可以把钱捐献给无法支付学费的孩子们。) He can also donate the money to NGOS and help those who are in need. (还可以把钱捐给需要帮助的人。) Do business: He can use that money to start a small business like opening an online shop or invest on financial products. (他可以用这些钱来做些小生意，如开个网店或做个小投资) Earn some experience in making profits and pave the way for future career. (可以争取一些经验，为以后的路做铺垫。) 【Task2】: Would you like to study on your own or listen to a lecture? 【思路】 listen to a lecture 1. can receive many new knowledge 可以接收很多新的知识 2. can have new thinking regarding to some problems 对于一些问题得到很多新的想法 3. get latest dynamic about the study 得到学术的最新动态 【Task3】: 学生写信给学校要求开放building后面的停车位给学生 理由1) 学生经常找不到车位 理由2) 早上老师停车位有大量空位 女学生反对 理由1:学生的停车场离教学楼也不是很远了，走路十分钟就能到教学楼，而且 停车位很充足，那些抱怨的人是不愿意走路。 理由2:老师的那个停车场其实也很挤的，很多时候都找不到停车位的。 【思路】 【Task5】: 一男一女讨论女的早上总是错过吃早餐因为起不来。她的课在早上8点，她总是赶在刚好的时间起床，所以没时间吃早餐，而她又买了meal plan包括了三餐所以很浪费。男的建议买零食，比如cereal和fruit在宿舍吃，不用cook的。女的说不行，因为平时错过早餐，所以大概只能吃2餐，现在再加上一顿虽然是零食，但是still cost她一些钱。然后又自己建议其实她可以switch到另一个在上午晚一点才上的课，还是同一个professor的，这样就有时间去吃早餐，但是她晚上想和朋友hang out。 【思路】 【Task6】: Two ways for whales to use sounds to survive in the deep ocean. First, navigate. Hear the refection from objects so that wholes can get right direction. Second obtain food. Since whale are in group, one can call other whales if it find any fish. 【思路】 【Task1】: If you had a chance to visit outerspace, will you go? 【思路】 Yes, 1. there are so so many mysteries in outerspace for us to explore.外太空有很多很多奥秘等我们去探索。 2. I am willing to see a different world . 我想看一下不同的世界。 【Task2】: Do you agree or disagree with the statement that it's important for students to study art and music in school. Explain your answer in details. 【思路】 I agree that artists and musicians are important to the society. Society needs both material wealth and spiritual wealth. Artists and musicians are key factors of aesthetical standards. A society should accommodate person with different talent. 【Task3】: The university should sponsor bus for an organized trip for 1st year students, as 1st year students don't have a car and senors can be more familiar with the city. The woman thinks it is a good idea. First, the city is far from campus, and no public transportation available. Second, because there is no bus, she did not know the time and place for music concerts. 【思路】 【Task5】: 【学生困难】The woman's roommate always watches TV at a high volume and that makes it hard for the woman to concentrate on her school work 方案一:go to the library to get her work done it's quiet and full of books and journals in the library 方案二:change to another dorm room she asked and there's a room available now 【思路】 【Task6】: economic 坏的eternity 污染什么之类的。 【思路】 【Task1】: Describe one family member who has different characteristics from other members. 【思路】 I would like to talk about my beloved mom 1. the most adventurous person I have ever seen in my life. 我生命中见过最用于冒险的人 2. eager to try various extreme sports 渴望尝试各种极限运动 3. always willing to help others when they are in trouble. 别人有困难的时候提供帮助 【Task2】: When watching film or TV, do you prefer everyone to stay quiet until the end of the show or to share their ideas during the show?Explain why. 【思路】 Share ideas: 1. that’s a good way to improve our friendship. (这是增进感情的好方法) 2.may forget after the end (结束后就可能会忘记要讨论什么了) Keep quiet: 1.talking may disturb others (讨论会打扰到他人) 2.miss some critical scene (会错过某些情节) 【Task3】: 阅读:学校让宿舍生选室友。听力:女同学不贙成。(1) 和室友一般没什麽矛盾，矛盾也是小矛盾；(2) 应该学习化解矛盾走上社会可以用；(3) 住校外的都是为了省钱，就算你可以选舍友仍然会住外面。Reading: A letter suggests that students should choose their roommates based on two reasons: fewer conflicts andmore dorm residence.Listening: the woman disagrees with the suggestion: (1). There are not many conflicts between roommates; evenif there are conflictsstudents should learn to overcome them rather than avoid them. Experiencing conflicts andsolving them are part of university life. (2). The reason why students choose to live off-campus is that the price ofdorm living is too expensive not that they cannot choose their own roommates. Thereforeallowing to chooseroommates does not solve the problem. 【思路】 The letter suggests that students should be given the freedom to choose their roommates instead of being assigned a roommate by the school. It is believed that this will lead to fewer conflicts between roommates as well as encouraging more students to live on campus. However, the woman disagrees with this suggestion. First, she says that there are actually not so many conflicts between students as the letter suggests, and that even if there are conflicts, students should learn how to deal with them rather than to avoid them. Having conflicts and then working to resolve them is part of university life. Also, the girl doesn’t believe that letting students choose their own roommates would encourage more students to live on campus because the reason why students choose to live off-campus is that the cost of living in the dorm is simply too high. So the school should first of all consider reducing the cost of room and board. 【Task5】: Sam郊游车葬了，父母要来，要立即洗车。 洗车中心洗但花钱 自己洗但考试快到了，怕没时间准备 【思路】 【Task6】: Lecture: Two survey methods. Example 1: Unstructured method these are usually open-ended questions that don't really look for specific information questions like what you want the government do to improve our city. Example 2: Structured method these are usually close-ended questions that look for specific information questions like choose from the three to improve our city:building more bicycle trails, building more parks and planting more trees. 【思路】 There are two ways to conduct a survey. The first way is unstructured method, which is to survey with open-ended questions. These questions don't really want to look for specific information. On the contrary, such questions focus on ideas that are beyond what have been previously known. For example, what do you want the government to do to improve our city? The second method is structured method, which adopts close-ended questions that look for specific information. Such questions will form a structure to narrow down answers. For example, please choose one solution out of the following three to improve our city: building more bicycle trails, building more parks and planting more trees. 【Task1】: Which of the following careers should be paid a higher salary: a teacher, a police officer, or a nurse. Please include specific examples and details in your explanation. 【思路】 teachers Intellectuals play an opening role in developing advanced productivity and economytimes. Every teacher is working extremly hard to cultivate talents for our great nation. 【Task2】: Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? The most important lessons cannot be learned in classrooms. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 【思路】 agree 1. classroom is not the only way to vonvey knowledge 教室不是唯一传授知识的地方 2. we can learn much by taking part in social activities 我们可以通过参加社会活动学到很多知识 【Task3】: A history student proposes that the history department should hold monthly meetings so that students can get more information and it's also a good way to socialize. The man disagrees with the proposal. First, he says if students want to get more info, they can go to the history department website, or go to their office and ask the staff for it. Second, he thinks the meeting will be too serious to be a social activity. He prefers more relaxing activities, like ones with drinks and stuff. 【思路】 【Task5】: 【学生困难】：女生说很忙，没时间去gym锻鍊 【解决方案】：建议：1.骑车去学校，顺便当锻鍊（但很热，会出汗） 2.早起去gym，（运动完可以洗澡，但要起很早） 【思路】 【Task6】: tele-communcation对公司的好处。第一，减少办公室试题开销overhead cost。不用给set up workplace or equipment for individual employee. 第二，保留员工优秀资源（retain valuable employee）。举例说教授妹妹的公司，现在25%的员工都可以选择不去公司，直接telecommuncating。company会经常move，有telecommuncating就不用hire and train新员工。举例说她妹妹的老公的公司要搬到texas，他可以直接telecommuncating 【思路】 【Task1】: Which of the following do you think the school should invest to improve student life 1)Technology 2)Sports facilities 3)Research 【思路】 sports facilities 1. students can do exercise 学生可以锻炼身体 2, make students more healthy 让学生更健康 3. relax through doing sports 通过运动放松 【Task3】: 【大学通知】:美国大学要求参加西班牙 Spain留学交换项目的美国学生到西班牙以后住校 live on campus。好处 1、住宿费便宜 cheap。好处 2、可以和 native Spanish speaker住在一起，有利于学习西班牙语 learn language(Spanish)和西班牙文化。【学生议论】:女生反对此计划。理由 1、其实学生在校园周边也能找到便宜的房子。她举了她 sister home stay的例子。她已经找到一个本地家庭 local family愿意租，房租相当便宜。理由 2、和美国学生住在一起，大家都说英语，没法学习 improve西班牙语言和文化。所以要搬出去住，只是不要说英语。 【思路】 【Task5】: 物理课的学习小组还是最喜欢的作者的演讲。The men in the conversation have time clash: to prepare a physics exam with a study group, or to go to a presentation by his favorite author. Two solutions: a) go to the presentation and study on his own, emailing the group when questions arise. b). go to the study group and read the presentation, which is to be publicized online by the university. 【思路】 【Task1】: Describe a family member who has similar personality traits to yours. Give specific details in your answer. 【思路】 My Aunt Vivian is crazy about jazz music. She’s always going to jazz shows and concerts around the city. Whenever I visit her house, there are trumpets blaring from the speakers of her stereo. It’s funny because nobody else in our family cares much for jazz. Not me, not my parents, not even Aunt Vivian’s husband. It just sounds like noise to us, honestly. But we try to learn when she talks about it! She’s such an animated person, too. She’ll talk so fast, explaining what the different instruments are doing, that I can barely understand her sometimes. I’m much more relaxed and calm than she is! But I admire her knowledge and her dedication to jazz. She could probably teach a class on it if she wanted. 【Task3】: 阅读:教授有个 special assignment，去 museum 看 ancient Egypt 的 sculpture。两个好处， 第一会 make more sense than the textbook；第二，做这个作业博物馆会给学生 discount(半 价)。 听力:女生很喜欢这个 assignment，因为:第一可以近距离看雕塑而不是只是书上的图片；第二，印象 深， never forget；第三，她好久之前就想去这个 museum，但是因为太贵，这次正好有 discount。 【思路】 The reading passage is a special assignment given by the professor. It asks students to visit the museum and write a paper about the Egyptian sculptures being exhibited there. In the conversation, the woman likes this new assignment. She says that the trip to the museum can allow students to observe in close distance the sculptures mentioned in the textbooks. This will make the students more impressed with the sculptures they are studying. The woman is also excited at the possibility of going to the museum free of charge/at a discount. She has wanted to go to the museum for a long time, but she cannot afford the high admission charges. 【Task5】: P: the woman plans to go home during the winter break, but the ticket is so expensive and she hasn't bought one. Solution 1: to take bus, cheap but 8-hour trip, very painful Solution 2: to take 3 am flight, but may interrupt their parents' sleep and inconvenient for them to pick up her. 【思路】 【Task1】: What is the biggest challenge for university students and why? Please include details and examples in your explanation. 【思路】 As I am prepared to go to study in a foreign country, I can imagine that home sickness must be the biggest difficulty for me to overcome. I think that holds true for most young people of my generation. Most of us are the single child in the family and we are very much attached to our family members which we could normally rely on for help. I guess I may have to interrupt a lot of personal relationships or even break them off to come overseas, so I might feel lonely, unhappy, unmotivated and unable to concentrate on studying. However, I am also a very resilient and optimistic person and I am sure I will pass this difficult stage just fine. 【Task3】: R更换图书馆的旧家具1提供舒适环境2吸引更多学生 L女生不同意 1)学习的时侯不能太舒服，容易打瞌睡 2)学生不爱去图书馆不是因为家具的原因，是因为他们都要带laptop学习，但是图书馆插座不够 【思路】 【Task5】: The woman needs to choose a biology class but the deadline for choosing courses has passed. The first solution is to take it next semester, but it's the woman's last semester and they won't be doing research next semester. The second solution is to pay 75 dollars to take it, but she doesn't have the money. 【思路】 【Task1】: Talk about two singers or musicians and the differences between them. Include examples and details in your response. 【思路】 two of my favorite singers are Jay Zhou and Fei Yuqing. Jay Zhou is one of the popular singers as well as a composer. -On the contrary, Fei Yuqing is a totally different style singer who is specialized in folk songs instead of popular songs 【Task3】: 阅读:学校准备start a new mentoring program，是让大四的人带大一的人(let fourth grade students tomentor first year students。)。有两个好处，(1) 大四的人知道的比较多；(2) 还有就是大一新生可以有更多social。听力:同意这个plan，因为那人说他大一的什麽都不知道，比如说schedule change 还有，building location，所以有个人能告诉他这些information 的话会很有帮助；另一个理由是，他大一的时候认识的人都是大一的或者住在一起的很局限，能认识更多不同年级的人的话会更好。 【思路】 The university has announced a plan to start a new mentoring program in which senior students are invited to mentor first-year students. It introduced this program in order to first, help first year students to adapt to college life more quickly, and second, allow first year students to expand social connection with senior students. The woman agrees with this plan and the reasons given in the announcement. She says that freshmen are often quite disoriented when they first enter the university, so a mentoring program would provide a channel through which they can obtain useful information such as changes in class schedule or location of school buildings. Furthermore, she admits that currently many freshmen students often meet and live with other freshmen students only, which has limited their chances of socialization. The new program would give them more opportunities to step outside their small circle of friends and approach and communicate with other senior members of the school community. 【Task5】: 男生抱怨住宿舍之后睡不好，导致上课精神不能集中，因为宿舍紧挨楼梯，楼梯晚上很吵。解决方法(1)马上换宿舍楼，但是男生不捨得同宿舍的室友们，而且离图书馆近；(2)等学期末了换到同楼的另一间远离楼梯的宿舍，但是要多等几个月。 【思路】 the man has a problem that the corridor of the dormitory he lives is too noisy, so he wants to change to another place. there are two possible solutions. he can either move to another building or to another side of the same building he lives now. from my perspective, i think the second solution is better; although moving to another building can provide him with quiet environment, it is too far. the better choice is to move to the same building, but another room which is not that noisy. 2 month`s waiting is worthwhile which can promise him a convenient as well as quiet place/ 【Task1】: What are the benefits of chatting with older family members? Give specific details in your answer. 【思路】 1)We can get a lot of advice from older family members because they have been through everything and have more experience in life (老一辈可以给我们很多建议